A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is a type of cyberattack in which an attacker attempts to make a website or network resource unavailable to users. The attacker does this by flooding the target with traffic from multiple sources, overwhelming the server and making it unable to handle legitimate requests.
DDoS attacks can be launched from a single device or from a network of compromised devices, known as a botnet. The attackers use these devices to send a large volume of traffic to the target, effectively denying access to legitimate users.
DDoS attacks can have serious consequences for the targeted website or network. They can disrupt business operations, damage the reputation of the company, and even cause financial losses. DDoS attacks are often launched for political or ideological reasons, or as a form of online vandalism.
To protect against DDoS attacks, it is important to have robust network security measures in place, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and content delivery networks (CDNs). It is also a good idea to have a plan in place for responding to a DDoS attack, including measures to mitigate the impact and restore services as quickly as possible.
What is SQLi (SQL Injection)?
SQL injection (SQLi) is a type of cyberattack in which an attacker inserts malicious code into a website's SQL database in order to gain unauthorized access or to steal sensitive information. SQL databases are used to store and manage data on many websites, and they are vulnerable to attack if they are not properly secured.
The attacker typically injects malicious SQL code into a website's input field, such as a login form or a search box, in order to execute unintended SQL commands on the database. This can allow the attacker to access or modify data, or even take control of the database.
SQLi attacks are a serious security threat, as they can compromise the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive data. They can also be difficult to detect, as the malicious code is often disguised as legitimate input.
To protect against SQLi attacks, it is important to ensure that all input fields are properly validated and sanitized, and to use parameterized queries to prevent SQL injection. It is also a good idea to regularly update and patch database software and to use robust security measures, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems.
What is XSS (Cross site scripting)?
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of cyberattack in which an attacker injects malicious code into a website in order to steal sensitive information or to gain unauthorized access to the site. The attacker does this by inserting the malicious code into a web page or application that is then executed by the victim's web browser.
There are two main types of XSS attacks:
Persistent XSS: In this type of attack, the malicious code is stored on the website's server and is executed every time the page is loaded.
Non-persistent XSS: In this type of attack, the malicious code is delivered to the victim through a link or other means and is executed when the victim accesses the link.
XSS attacks can be used to steal sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial data. They can also be used to execute malicious actions, such as redirecting the victim to a phishing site or installing malware on their device.
To protect against XSS attacks, it is important to validate and sanitize all input fields and to use appropriate encoding and escaping techniques to prevent malicious code from being executed. It is also a good idea to use content security policies and to keep all web applications and frameworks up to date with the latest security patches.
What is CSRF (cross site request forgery)?
Cross-site request forgery (CSRF) is a type of cyberattack in which an attacker tricks a victim into making an unintended action on a website. The attack takes advantage of the victim's authenticated session on the website, allowing the attacker to perform actions on the victim's behalf without their knowledge or consent.
For example, an attacker could use a CSRF attack to trick a victim into making a purchase on an e-commerce website, transferring money from their bank account, or changing their account settings. The attack is launched by sending the victim a malicious link or by embedding malicious code into a website that the victim visits.
To protect against CSRF attacks, it is important to use anti-CSRF tokens and to implement proper session management. It is also a good idea to use content security policies and to keep all web applications and frameworks up to date with the latest security patches.
What are OWASP Top 10 vulnerabilities?
The OWASP Top 10 is a list of the most common and most critical web application vulnerabilities. It is published by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP), a nonprofit organization that focuses on improving the security of software. The OWASP Top 10 is updated every few years to reflect the latest trends and developments in web application security.
The current OWASP Top 10 (2022) vulnerabilities are:
Injection: This vulnerability occurs when an attacker injects malicious code into a web application, allowing them to execute unintended commands or access sensitive data.
Broken Authentication and Session Management: This vulnerability occurs when an application's authentication and session management functions are not implemented correctly, allowing attackers to gain unauthorized access to the application.
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS): This vulnerability occurs when an attacker injects malicious code into a web page, allowing them to steal sensitive information or execute malicious actions on the victim's device.
Insecure Direct Object References: This vulnerability occurs when an application exposes sensitive object references, allowing attackers to access them directly and gain unauthorized access to sensitive data.
Security Misconfiguration: This vulnerability occurs when an application's security settings are not properly configured, making it more vulnerable to attack.
Sensitive Data Exposure: This vulnerability occurs when an application stores or transmits sensitive data in an insecure way, making it vulnerable to interception or theft.
Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF): This vulnerability occurs when an attacker tricks a victim into making unintended actions on a website, using the victim's authenticated session.
Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities: This vulnerability occurs when an application uses outdated or vulnerable components, such as libraries or frameworks, that have known security issues.
Insufficient Logging and Monitoring: This vulnerability occurs when an application does not have sufficient logging and monitoring in place, making it more difficult to detect and respond to security incidents.
Failure to Restrict URL Access: This vulnerability occurs when an application does not properly restrict access to certain URLs, allowing attackers to gain unauthorized access to sensitive data or functions.
By addressing these vulnerabilities, organizations can significantly improve the security of their web applications and protect against common attack vectors.